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A Journey Through The Ancient Ruins Of Ephesus

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After a good night’s sleep and a breakfast to set us up for the day, we once again hit the road for the short 2 hour drive towards Selçuk. First stop for the day, the magnificent ruined city of Ephesus.

The day before, we’d clambered around the travertines of Pamukkale and explored the haunting ruins of Hierapolis.

We were on our little drive around southwest Turkey. Since our last visit in 2003, Ephesus had been awarded UNESCO World Heritage Site status and the famous Terrace Houses had been opened up to the public.

A perfect excuse to reacquaint ourselves…

Ephesus Turkey, Celsus Library Detail
Ephesus is famous for the Celsus Library

Arrival At Ancient Ephesus, Turkey

Whenever we’re doing road trips in Turkey, there’s always something that doesn’t quite go according to plan.

We’d planned on finding some accommodation in Selçuk and then walking the 3km stretch to the Ephesus site from there.

Somehow, the road signs we followed lead us right to a jandarma check point. A quick check of documents and momentary scan around the car.

Then we were waved on our way again…straight into the car park of the second entrance of Ephesus.

How did that happen?

Guess we’ll explore Ephesus first, then…

Exploring The Ruins Of Ephesus

Entering via the second entrance meant we’d be starting from the top and working our way downhill, through the famous city. A whole different perspective from our last visit.

And, if we’re being totally honest, we remember very little, if anything, of the ruins at this top end.

The beauty of returning time and again. You forget things, you miss things, parts of the site were off limits on a particular visit.

Known today as Ephesus, the ancient city is called Ephesos in Greek and Efes in Turkish.

Settled in Roman times on the northern slopes of the hills Coressus and Pion, south of the mouth of the Cayster River (Küçük Menderes in Turkish) in Western Turkey, Ephesus dates from the 10th Century BC.

But what we see as we’re walking around are from the Hellenistic period and Roman era.

Second only in size to Rome, Ephesus was the Roman capital of the Roman Province of Asia Minor and these guys were pretty wealthy citizens! They even supplied olive oil to Rome!

Come with us for a wander…

The Bath of Varius

Ephesus Varius Baths
The Bath of Varius dates from the 2nd Century AD

There’s constant work to be done for archaeologists at the ancient city ruins of Ephesus.

The first photo my camera shot, right by the entrance, was of the Bath of Varius. Restored and extended numerous times from its original state in the 2nd Century AD, excavations are apparently yet to be done here.

Whenever we’re exploring ancient ruins in Turkey, ‘snap happy’ comes into play. Snap now, more research later.

Even using this strategy, we were still at Ephesus for around 3 hours.

It’s fascinating! Of the Roman era, Ephesus is the best preserved of the ancient cities in the region.

Rather than wander between selections of rocks and stones, you walk through the city, along the roads built and trodden by those who lived there.

If you really want a feel for how the ancient Romans lived, the ruins of Ephesus are a must.

So transport yourself back to those ancient times and let’s move on…

The Basilica Stoa of Ephesus

Ephesus Basilica Stoa
The ancient Greeks and Romans loved a column or two

What better than a long row of columns to lead the eye, to tempt the photographer?

Izmir’s Agora and the columns of ancient Perge are etched into my memory.

The first offerings we come to at the top end of Ephesus are the columns of the Basilica Stoa, located on the northern part of the State Agora.

This was an area for important public gatherings that would have had a roof resting atop the columns and it’s the first feel of being a part of the city.

This is where the pathways start to lead you around and where relatively intact ruins take the imagination to daily life rather than trying to conjure up images of what maybe a structure looked like.

The Ephesus Bouleuterion or Odeon

Ephesus Bouleuterion
The Ephesus Bouleuterion was where city matters were discussed

Behind the Basilica Stoa, we walked by the Bouleuterion where the important Ephesian aristocrats would meet to discuss matters of the city.

Tax collection, building maintenance, construction – those discussions took place here.

As an odeon, theatrical performances and the like were performed here, too. This top end of the city was such an important public gathering area. But, first time round, it seems we missed its relevance.

Depending on which site you read, the Ephesus ruins are one of the most – if not the most – visited tourist attractions in Turkey.

It hit like a thunder bolt while we were there – the lack of crowds. Great for us on a selfish level but so frustrating and sad, too.

Granted, it was October – perfect weather for a trip to Ephesus, by the way – but the scenes were so different to our first visit and photos we’d seen since.

The crowds will return so let’s enjoy these relatively empty scenes.

The Ephesus Prytaneion

Ephesus Prytaneion
The Ephesus Prytaneion housed an eternal flame

Ephesus was also an important Greek city.

Housing a sacred eternal flame that was dedicated to the Greek goddess of hearth and fire, Hestia, the Prytaneion was one of the most important buildings in Ephesus.

The columns you can see in the distance have been re-erected and other parts of the building were used to construct the public baths further down the hill. Hence its not-very-intact state.

For this important and sacred building, well, your imagination needs to be in vivid mode.

Excavations here recovered two statues of the goddess, Artemis. And they, along with so many other artefacts from this site, are on display at Efes Archaeological Museum, just down the road in the centre of Selçuk.

We love this museum, but that’s for another article.

Our goddess, Artemis of the Ephesians, is the very same Greek goddess Artemis featured in the myth of Leto; the myth surrounding the ancient site of Letoon.

Another link in our chain of piecing together modern day Turkey’s ancient history.

Artemis was revered and worshipped by the Ephesians (they of the Biblical book of Ephesians) and their famous Temple of Artemis was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

Some fragments of the Temple of Artemis, also known as the Temple of Diana, are now housed in the British Museum in London.

The Pollio Fountain & Temple Of Domitian

Ephesus Fountain Of Pollio
The Pollio Fountain was under scaffolding at the time of our visit

Clues as to the immense wealth of the ancient city of Ephesus are everywhere as you walk through the site.

As with so many other temples we’ve come across when exploring Turkey’s ancient ruins, it’s difficult to imagine what the Temple of Domitian would have looked like in its prime.

It’s neighbour, however, is the Pollio Fountain. As fountains go, this is mighty.

This area was fenced off at the time of our visit; scaffolding protecting and supporting the arch of the Pollio Fountain.

It’s always a marvel for us how, so long ago, water was so effectively transported and channelled to the citizens of the Roman Empire.

The Fountain of Pollio was built in honour of Sextillius Pollio who built an aqueduct that carried water all the way from Kuşadası to supply the city.

Hence the shape of the fountain? Quite possibly.

You can just imagine that tranquil sound of gushing fountain water amongst the everyday hubbub of city life.

Of course, there were statues adorning this grand fountain. And, of course, they’re to be seen in the nearby museum.

The Ephesus Memmius Monument

Ephesus Memmius Monument
The Ephesus Memmius Monument is a commanding scene

Perhaps because we were walking downhill, from the top to the bottom of ancient Ephesus, we noticed so much more than previously.

We’ve never had a guide with us at this site so we were there to discover for ourselves.

Turkey’s official guides really know their stuff – we learned so much on our revisit to ancient Myra and Church of St. Nicholas via a guide – but sometimes, an independent stroll is in order.

And, on this visit, as we approached the main stretch of the famous Curetes Street, the Memmius Monument stood proudly to the right of the road.

Quite a commanding scene.

We’re just a few metres away from the Pollio Fountain, here. And apparently, there was a fountain here, too. Lucky Ephesians!

As Ancient Roman life was, it seems the Ephesians were leading a charmed existence.

Ephesus Hercules Gate

Ephesus Hercules Gate
One column of the Hercules Gate

Yes, we know a gate should have two pillars to it – and the Ephesus Gate of Hercules does have two pillars.

However, despite the lack of crowds exploring the ancient city on the day we were there, a photo containing the second pillar minus close-up people and sun glare proved impossible.

So, the main reasons for including this half-a-story photo are twofold:

The first reason is to give you a clue of the intricacy and detail of some of the statues and monuments you can just be in awe of when you visit Ephesus.

Each pillar is apparently a carving of Hercules.

The second reason is because the Hercules Gate marks one of the boundaries of Curetes Street.

And this, is the really special part of the ruins of Ephesus for us.

Curetes Steet, Ephesus

Ephesus Curetes Street
Let the eye be drawn to the end of Curetes Street

Curetes Street is astonishing in its ability to place you in the ancient Roman era!

We’ve not seen every single ruined Roman city in the world, obviously.

But, as getting a sense of real life in an ancient affluent city goes; as town planning goes; and as natural landscape goes: Just look at Curetes Street!

Astounding. One of the best places you’re gonna see.

We’re sharing those paving stones that the Ephesians, too, walked along.

Many of the highlights mentioned in this post are to the left and right, top and bottom of Curetes Street.

And Curetes Street is on a slope.

At the bottom, as you zigzag from left to right to take in each sight of Ephesus, is perhaps the most famous sight…

Yes, we need to take in all the other marvels first, but the Library of Celsus awaits. It beckons you!

From the top of Curetes Street, you can see the fertile plains of Selçuk, leading towards the Aegean Sea and the horizon.

Neat rows of modern day lush greenery and vegetation were once the sea and harbour that helped to make Ephesus the prosperous, important city that it was.

Despite dredging efforts, the Ephesians were unable to prevent the silting up of the harbour and this was one of the deciding factors of the city’s eventual demise.

The Ephesus Fountain Of Trajan

Ephesus Fountain Of Trajan
It’s another fountain – Trajan’s Fountain

But let’s not get ahead of ourselves, writing off this amazing city of Ephesus just yet.

On the right of Curetes Street as we walked down the slope was the Fountain of Trajan. Another fountain.

Your walk uphill in the intense summer heat must have been a tad easier back in the day, with all this water spraying as you passed by.

We’re in the 2nd Century AD, here, and the Ephesians built this fountain in honour of Emperor Trajan.

Trajan carries the label of one of the five ‘good Roman emperors.’

So labelled because, as well as his successful military expansion of the Roman Empire, he was also well known for his administrative and building knowledge and acts.

Guess where the excavated statues are that were excavated around the Fountain of Trajan?

Yes, you really need to include the nearby museum in your visit to Ephesus!

Hadrian’s Temple

Temple Of Hadrian
The beautiful Temple of Hadrian

How beautiful is this Temple of Hadrian?

We stopped here for a good few moments just admiring the intact, decorative stonework.

All of this had slipped from memory from our first visit – it doesn’t help that I lost all my photos from pre-digital-camera days when we first moved to Turkey. No images to rejog the memory.

Gazing at Hadrian’s Temple, dedicated to Roman Emperor Hadrian, was like a first time visit for us.

I did remember that some replica work had been done by archaeologists both at the Temple of Hadrian and other sights of Ephesus, to piece together missing parts and to protect vulnerable stonework.

Those original parts, again, are in the nearby museum. And thankfully, the replica work in no way takes away from the beauty of this temple.

And it would have been interesting to compare those past photos because this restoration of Hadrian’s Temple was only completed in 2014.

Lost in taking photos, lost in the history of Curetes Street and the magnetism of the awaiting, nearby, Ephesus Terrace Houses and the Library of Celsus at the bottom of the street, we completely neglected to take a peek at the Scholastica Baths just behind the temple.

That can be saved for another time…

Terrace Houses Of Ephesus

As we stood admiring the Temple of Hadrian, just behind us was the mosaic footpath and the entrance to the famous Terrace Houses of Ephesus.

These Terrace Houses were perhaps the main reason for our return to the site as they were only opened to the public relatively recently.

Mosaic Footpath
We couldn’t wait to get inside the Terrace Houses

There are so many ancient ruins in Turkey – we’ve only seen a fraction – and it is easy to get ‘ruin fatigue’ if you’re touring around, trying to take in as many as possible.

Another temple, another theatre, another emperor, god, goddess. It all becomes a mishmash in your head.

These photos hopefully give you some clue that Ephesus is different. It’s a city.

And what’s even more special about ancient Ephesus are the Terrace Houses.

Ruins of temples and major public buildings are one thing. But to get a peek into the daily home life of wealthy Ephesians – that, for us, is truly amazing.

Terrace Houses Of Ephesus
The Ephesus Terrace Houses offer a unique insight into home life of wealthy Ephesians

There’s an extra fee to go into the Terrace Houses so perhaps this was why there were so few visitors inside.

But if you do go to Ephesus, make sure you don’t skip this real insight. It’s a must!

Raised wooden walkways guide you around and up each terrace level. The walls of the villas are still decorated in their original paintwork.

There’s writing etched into the walls here and there. Some is where kids have played games and kept score.

Others are lists – shopping lists and the latest prices for meat and vegetables.

The layout of the living quarters is clear to see, separated by interior walls and doorways. Bathroom fittings are still in evidence.

Mosaics In The Terrace Houses
The mosaics and frescoes of the Ephesus Terrace Houses are sublime

And then there are the intricate floor mosaics and the frescoes around the walls.

Never have we seen so many intact mosaics in their original setting. A mosaic in a museum display is one thing. To see them here as part of the homes of the Ephesians is just extraordinary.

Some are patterns, like you can see in the photo above. And there are also superb depictions of animals and other mythical beings and creatures.

Cutlery, crockery, toys, jewellery and other household items found in the Ephesus Terrace houses are all on display at the museum.

And if the work of the archaeologist fascinates you as much as it does us, their painstaking efforts are on full display at these Terrace Houses.

There’s still so much more to be revealed here.

Ephesus Celsus Library

Ephesus Hadrian's Gate
The towering Hadrian’s Gate

Leaving the Terrace Houses, we passed through the towering columns of Hadrian’s Gate onto Marble Street and headed to what is perhaps the most famous landmark of Ancient Ephesus.

This is what most people come to see. The Library of Celsus…

Ephesus Library Of Celsus
The Celsus Library and the Gates of Mazaeus and Mithridates

Flanked on one side by the Gates of Mazaeus and Mithridates, the Celsus Library area is often rammed with visitors. We were blessed on this day to have relative ease of access.

It’s amazing to think that this structure was completed in 117 AD and still stands in its current condition, today.

Built in honour of the Roman Governor of Asia, Gaius Julius Celsus Polemaeanus, by his son, the library contained 12,000 scrolls as well as the tomb of the governor.

It’s not difficult to see, even today, why it was considered to be one of the most impressive buildings in Asia Minor.

Ephesus Celsus Library Detail
Up close and personal with the Library of Celsus

Getting up close and personal with the Celsus Library and this is yet another ancient Ephesus construction where the carving of the stone is like lacework.

It really is remarkable.

Statues also adorn the library and these are replicas that reveal the grandeur of the building in its heyday.

You don’t need us to tell you where any of the original statues that were here are displayed.

Yes, that’s right, you can find many of the original pieces in Efes Archaeological Museum.

Some others, however, are displayed at museums internationally.

The Commercial Agora

Through the gates, we wandered around the square boundaries of the commercial agora.

This state agora, built in the 3rd Century BC and modified during the reign of Emperor Augustus, originally bordered the harbour on one side and was the trade centre of Ephesus.

As well as the trading of goods, don’t forget, we’re in Roman times, here. Slaves of both the male and female variety were also traded.

Commercial Agora
The Ephesus commercial agora is surrounded by columns

It’s perfectly square (160m x 160m) and lined with columns.

And, if Ephesus is crowded on the day you visit, this little area might be the best way to escape for a while. Bar one other wanderer, we were the only people here.

The Great Theatre

We took our exit out onto Marble Street and headed towards our final Ephesus highlight for the day, the Great Theatre.

Ephesus Great Theatre with columns leading along the agora
Ephesus is always worth a revisit

It’s called ‘Great’ for a reason. The Ephesus theatre is colossal!

We’ve included this photo, taken from the edge of Harbour Street to try and give you an idea of its size. And this is, for us, the most impressive view.

When you actually climb up the steps inside the theatre and stand amongst the rows of seating, it loses some of its magic for us.

Used for performances today, when we visited, the temporary stage was being erected. It was hammers and drills and wires.

Not to worry though, if you do make the effort to climb up into the Great Theatre, you’re rewarded with these great views along Harbour Street.

Harbour Street View
Climbing the Great Theatre is worth it for the views

The Ephesus Theatre also has fame playing a part in the spread of early Christianity in the Bible in the book of Acts in the New Testament.

Apostle John (whose basilica – the Church of St. John – and said burial place is close to Ephesus on Ayasuluk Hill) had already converted a few Ephesians to Christianity.

And Apostle Paul, also known as St. Paul, who was residing in Ephesus at the time was continuing the work; encouraging people to convert.

As you might imagine, some Ephesians were non too pleased about this because they were worried about the demise of the worship of Artemis.

A local mob gathered in the theatre with the aim of preventing Saint Paul from any further preaching about the teachings of Jesus Christ, only to be talked down lest Ephesus get into trouble from Rome for rioting.

All fascinating stuff – and we’re not done there with the Biblical connections.

The Church of Mary

It’s got to be said, the Church of Mary (aka the Double Church and the Council Church) is up there with the least impressive of the physical ruins of Ephesus.

We followed the signposts. And four other visitors just ahead of us stopped as they arrived at the site from the Magnesia Gate entrance.

“Oh. Is this it?”

Yeah, Mary’s church can only be described as underwhelming in its present state.

However, we can’t omit it from our Ephesus journey because its story has great historical significance.

Church Of Mary
You need a good imagination to conjure an image of the Church of Mary

The Church of Mary has a hugely important role in the history of the Christian Church.

was the Cathedral of Ephesus and this was where the Council of Ephesus, also known as the Third Ecumenical Council, was held in 431 AD.

Their discussion was to decide whether the Virgin Mary could be labelled Theotokos (bearer of God).

Bishop of Constantinople, Nestorius made himself Mr Unpopular by suggesting she should be described as Christotokos (bearer of Christ).

The former description was agreed upon. And apparently, Mary is labelled ‘Theotokos,’ to this very day.

Bishop Nestorius was thus not flavour of the month amongst the people of Ephesus and he was sent elsewhere – Antioch – to be bishop.

And this concludes our journey around the highlights of the ruins of Ephesus.

There is more to see that isn’t mentioned here. And, as the years pass, no doubt more will be revealed and we will once again return.

Visiting Ephesus – FAQs

Is Ephesus worth visiting?

Most definitely, yes, Ephesus is worth a good few hours of your time!

If you have visited ancient ruins in the past and been disappointed by what you have seen, Ephesus is certain to wow!

Is Ephesus open in winter?

Yes, the ruins of Ephesus are open year round. In fact, we think winter and low season periods are the best time to visit Ephesus.

If you visit in the summer months, be sure to wear loose, cool clothing and a hat. Have some water with you, too, as it’s a large site with little shade.

How much time do you need in Ephesus?

How much time you need in Ephesus depends on how much of a history buff you are.

If you want to soak up all of the history and include a visit to the Terrace Houses which have been opened to the public in recent years, you could spend most of the day around the site.

We recommend at least three hours.

How old are Ephesus ruins?

It is said that Ephesus was founded in the 10th Century BC. The ruins in the site that visitors see today are from Hellenistic times and the period of Roman control.

In the Hellenistic period, it was the most important of the Ionian cities of Asia Minor. In the Roman era, Ephesus was the Roman capital of Asia Minor.

Why was Ephesus abandoned?

After centuries of being an important city, a series of events conspired to cause the downfall of Ephesus.

It lost religious importance during Byzantime times when Constantine the Great declared Christianity the official religion of all of Rome. Constantinople, rather than Ephesus, became capital of the Roman Eastern Empire.

On top of this, Ephesus had been an important port city. However, that port was now silting up and ships could no longer dock to offload or take on cargo.

After raids and earthquakes and a now silted harbour, trade died at Ephesus. The city was finally abandoned in the 15th Century.

How much is entrance to Ephesus 2023?

For 2023, entrance to the Ephesus ruins is 200 TL. If you want to visit the Terrace Houses, there is a an extra entrance fee of 85 TL.

If you are a Turkish citizen or resident and have a Müze Kart, entrance to the sire is free. However, you will still need to pay the entrance fee to the Terrace Houses.

If you are travelling in Turkey and intending to visit other museums and archaeological sites in the area, it might be worth you buying an Aegean Museum Card. This costs 650 TL and gives you entrance to sites around the Aegean for a period of 7 days.

Let’s look at some practicalities:

Visiting Ephesus – Useful Information

This 5 minute YouTube video by American travel presenter Rick Steves might bring Ephesus to life for you…

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Thursday 1st of March 2018

I was sorry to miss you there by one day.

Turkey's For Life

Tuesday 25th of September 2018

I knoıw, weird how we both ended up at Ephesus at near enough the same time. :)

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